• 尺寸/面积: 64969公顷
  • 生物区: 墨累达令大萧条
  • 哺乳动物: 31
  • 鸟: 174
  • 爬行动物: 60
  • 两栖动物: 2
  • 威胁野生动物: 44
  • 植物: 437
  • 威胁植物: 6


©韦恩Lawler /风能网
韦恩Lawler /风能网
©韦恩Lawler /风能网
©韦恩Lawler /风能网
©布拉德Leue /风能网
©布拉德Leue /风能网


位于新南威尔士州和南澳大利亚州边界附近, 在布罗肯山以南约150公里处, 斯科舍 is dominated by majestic old-growth mallee woodlands and stunning red sand dunes. 这个保护区有将近65年的历史,面积达1000公顷, placed within the Murray Mallee subregion of the 墨累达令大萧条 Bioregion. 连同新南威尔士州和南澳大利亚州邻近的保护区, it helps protect one of the largest areas of intact mallee woodland in Australia.

这个避难所由两个以前的牧区组成, 恩尼斯维尔和塔拉拉车站, which were among some of the last areas of far-western 新南威尔士州 taken up for pastoral activities. Pastoral activity commenced in the 1920s and ceased in the mid-1990s when the property was purchased by Earth Sanctuaries Limited. AWC于2002年收购了斯科舍.

斯科舍有两种主要地貌. The first consists of parallel sand dunes with narrow sandy swales and open calcareous swales in between. 沙丘沿东西方向移动, 每个沙丘约10米高, 最长可达6公里. 它们几乎完全稳定了下来, and are composed of red earthy sands and sandy solonised brown soils overlying sandy clays.

The other dominant landform type is flat extensive plains of calcareous loamy sands overlying light clay soil. 由于土壤的沙质性质,地表水流受到限制, 斯科舍也没有明显的水道. However, moisture accumulates in the swales and open flats where the soil texture is heavier.

斯科舍 occurs on the boundary of the arid and semi-arid climatic zones, 年平均降雨量约200毫米. 年降雨量变化很大, 有些年份的降雨量超过600毫米, 其他年份略高于100毫米. The region experiences hot summers with mean daily maximum temperatures of over 30°C and maximums exceeding 49ºC. 相比之下,冬天很冷,经常下雪.

The vegetation on the sanctuary is dominated by Eucalyptus mallee communities (with an understorey of either spinifex or mixed shrub, 取决于土壤), 壤土中的木麻黄林地, 混合灌木. 这里还有濒临灭绝的金合欢群落(金合欢loderi 林地),濒临灭绝的金合欢(金合欢acanthoclada),以及濒临灭绝的生态群落(Halosarcia lylei)与斯科舍的盐湖有关.


部分原因是它相对较短的放牧历史, 斯科舍’s habitats are in good condition and support a stunning diversity of wildlife. 更重要的是, AWC已经建立了一个无狐无猫的区域,保护8只,000公顷的保护区(直到最近), 澳大利亚大陆最大的——现在最大的在纽黑文).

皇冠体育app下载重新建立了野性, self-sustaining populations of four nationally threatened mammals: the Bilby, 袋食蚁兽, 甲尾小袋鼠, 和挖洞贝通. For these animals, the work at 斯科舍 is vital to safeguarding them from extinction.

在没有野生捕食者的地区之外, AWC的土地管理保护了丰富的其他内陆生物多样性, 比如各种各样的小型哺乳动物, including threatened species such as the Southern Ningaui and Bolam’s Mouse. 这里有超过170种鸟类,如槌鸟, 米切尔少校的鹦鹉, Scarlet-chested鹦鹉, 有条纹的Grasswren, 斑蜜雀和栗色鹌鹑, and over 50 reptiles including threatened species such as the Western Blue-tongue and the Marbled Delma.


A feature of AWC’s land management at 斯科舍 has been the establishment of one of the largest fox and cat-free areas on mainland Australia, enabling the successful return to far western 新南威尔士州 of several endangered mammal species which have been extinct in 新南威尔士州 for more than a century. It is one of the nation’s most important biodiversity reconstruction projects.

在这个没有猎食动物的地区之外, AWC implements a landscape-scale feral animal control program combined with active fire management and weed control. 除了, a dedicated scientific research facility (the Bettongia Field Station) supports a range of biodiversity research projects.

而野猫和狐狸则出没于墨累达令盆地, 自成立以来的8,000 hectare feral predator-free area at 斯科舍 there has only been one incursion by a fox. 在围栏外, foxes are controlled with M44’s (spring loaded bait stations which target animals with an upwards pull force of 2.5kg) standard 引诱, and a range of traps are used to control feral cats. Research is underway at 斯科舍 to develop more effective, landscape-scale control of feral cats.

野生食草动物也被挡在围栏之外, with monitoring programs in place to detect any incursions by rabbits. 通过机会性射击来控制兔子, 引诱, 撕扯沃伦. 野生山羊在斯科舍的密度很低, 并通过诱捕程序被清除, 集合和剔除.

斯科舍的科学活动水平特别高, AWC员工承担了近7项工作,000个活陷阱夜和超过4个,每年进行000次样带调查, 包括聚光灯调查, 鸟类调查和跟踪样带. 这项调查工作衡量了一套生态健康指标, 包括受到高度威胁的哺乳动物, the diversity and abundance of key faunal groups such as threatened mallee birds and ground-dwelling reptiles, 以及火灾等威胁的重要性, 野生食草动物密度与杂草占用率.

斯科舍 is also the base for a substantial scientific research program, largely examining the effect of removing feral animals and reintroducing locally extinct mammal species, 其中一些承担着重要的“生态系统工程”角色. 项目包括:

  • 重新引入哺乳动物物种生态学的若干研究
  • Projects examining the positive ecosystem effects of reintroducing digging mammals – for example, 对土壤表面的影响, 随着水分的渗入和种子的萌发, 大量的大型昆虫等. (拉筹伯大学和新南威尔士大学).

An important part of the land management strategy at 斯科舍 is active fire management. Wildfires in the mallee can be extensive, will burn intensely and can be difficult to contain. AWC carries out ground-based prescribed burning during the cooler months, 目的是维持那些长期未被烧焦的区域. Areas inside the feral predator-free area are burnt to provide refuge (areas with lower fuel) if a wildfire does occur.


©Kim Wormald


The Bridled Nailtail Wallaby was believed to be extinct for much of the 20th century, 直到1973年偶然发现了幸存的种群. AWC重新引入a...

©韦恩Lawler /风能网


W. Lawler/AWC穴居Bettongs (or often referred to as Boodies in western and southern Australia), 是一个小的, 结实的, 动物间.

©布拉德Leue /风能网


一种夜间活动的有袋动物, the 刷尾贝通(威利) is considered an important ‘ecosystem engineer’.

斯科舍避难所 ©风能网


自欧洲殖民以来, the wildlife of the Murray-Darling region has been devastated by feral predators, 栖息地丧失和野生食草动物的影响. In Western 新南威尔士州, almost half of all mammal species (excluding bats) have disappeared. 该地区的大多数国家公园都没有有袋动物, having lost the majority of their small-medium sized mammal species almost a century ago. 斯科舍 has a relatively intact vegetation structure thanks to its short grazing history, and thanks to the feral predator-free area and careful land management, 代表了该地区许多物种的希望灯塔.


韦恩Lawler /风能网
功能 6月19日. 2024


布拉德Leue /风能网
来自现场新闻发布的消息 12日6月. 2024